Selvarangan, R, M Nzabi, SB Selvaraju, P Ketter, C Carpenter, CJ Harrison. Human parechovirus 3 causing sepsis-like illness in children from midwestern United States. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 2011;30:238-242.
Nonpolio enterovirus and human parechovirus surveillance --- United States, 2006-2008. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report 2010;59:1577-1580.
Davis, J, D Fairley, S Christie, P Coyle, R Tubman, MD Shields. Human Parechovirus Infection in Neonatal Intensive Care. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 2014.
Khatami, A, BJ McMullan, M Webber, et al. Sepsis-like Disease in Infants Due to Human Parechovirus Type 3 During an Outbreak in Australia. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015;60:228-236.
Esposito, S, J Rahamat-Langendoen, B Ascolese, L Senatore, L Castellazzi, HG Niesters. Pediatric parechovirus infections. Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 2014;60:84-89.
Brownell, AD, TQ Reynolds, B Livingston, CA McCarthy. Human Parechovirus-3 Encephalitis in Two Neonates: Acute and Follow-Up Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Evaluation of Central Nervous System Markers of Inflammation. Pediatric neurology 2014.
Kolehmainen, P, A Jaaskelainen, S Blomqvist, et al. Human parechovirus type 3 and 4 associated with severe infections in young children. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 2014;33:1109-1113.
OTHER RELATED RESEARCH
Carville KS, Lehmann D, Hall G, et al. Infection is the major component of the disease burden in aboriginal and non-aboriginal Australian children: a population-based study. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007; 26(3):210–216.
Schrag S, Schuchat A. Prevention of neonatal sepsis. Clin Perinatol 2005; 32(3):601–615. 3. Lawn JE, Wilczynska-Ketende K, Cousens SN. Estimating the causes of 4 million neonatal deaths in the year 2000. Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35:706–718.
Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Tomashek KM, Anderson RN, Wingo J. Recent national trends in sudden, unexpected infant deaths: more evidence supporting a change in classification or reporting. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163(8):762–769.
Sedmak G, Bina D, MacDonald J. Assessment of an enterovirus sewage surveillance system by comparison of clinical isolates with sewage isolates from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, collected August 1994 to December 2002. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003; 69(12):7181–7187.
Sutter RW, Pallansch MA, Sawyer LA, Cochi SL, Hadler SC. Defining surrogate serologic tests with respect to predicting protective vaccine efficacy: poliovirus vaccination. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995; 754:289–299.
Finney DJ. Statistical methods in biological assays. 2nd ed. New York: Hafner Publishing, 1964.
Nix WA, Maher K, Niklasson B, et al. Detection of all known parechoviruses by real time-PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46(8):2519–2524.
Stanway G, Joki-Korpela P, Hyypia¨ T. Human parechoviruses–biological and clinical significance. Rev Med Virol 2000; 10:57–69.
Ehrnst A, Eriksson M. Epidemiological features of type 22 echovirus infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1993; 25(3):275–281.
Ehrnst A, Eriksson M. Echovirus type 23 observed as a nosocomial infection in infants. Scand J Infect Dis 1996; 28(2):205–206.
Legay V, Chomel JJ, Fernandez E, Lina B, Aymard M, Khalfan S. Encephalitis due to human parechovirus type 1. J Clin Virol 2002; 25: 193–195.
Verboon-Maciolek MA, Krediet TG, Gerards LJ, Fleer A, van Loon TM. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of viral infections in a neonatal intensive care unit during a 12-year period. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005; 24(10):901–904.
Verboon-Maciolek MA, Krediet TG, Gerards LJ, de Vries LS, Groenendaal F, van Loon AM. Severe neonatal parechovirus infection and similarity with enterovirus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008; 27(3): 241–245.
Koskiniemi M, Paetau R, Linnavuori K. Severe encephalitis associated with disseminated echovirus 22 infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1989; 21(4):463–466.
Figueroa JP, Ashley D, King D, Hull B. An outbreak of acute flaccid paralysis in Jamaica associated with echovirus type 22. J Med Virol 1989; 29(4):315–319.
Ito M, Yamashita T, Tsuzuki H, Takeda N, Sakae K. Isolation and identification of a novel human parechovirus. J Gen Virol 2004; 85: 391–398. Benschop KSM, Schinkel J, Luken ME, et al. Fourth human parechovirus serotype. Emerg Infect Dis 2006; 12:1572–1575.
Al-Sunaidi M, Williams CH, Hughes PJ, Schnurr DP, Stanway G. Analysis of a new human parechovirus allows the definition of parechovirus types and the identification of RNA structural domains. J Virol 2007;81: 1013–1021.
Watanabe K, Oie M, Nishikawa M, Fujii M. Isolation and characterization of a novel human parechovirus from various clinical samples. Emerg Infect Dis 2007; 13:889–895.
Drexler JF, Grywna K, Sto¨cker A, et al. A novel human parechovirus from Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15:310–313.
Li L, Victoria J, Kapoor A, et al. Genomic characterization of a novel human parechovirus type. Emerg Infect Dis 2009; 15:288–291.
1. What is the connection with Human Parechovirus Type 3 and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)? Is this a possible explanation for SIDS cases?
2. Why is my child more susceptible to this virus?
3. Why were my child's symptoms different from others?
4. Why does testing take so long?
5. When will a vaccine be ready?
© Copyright. All Rights Reserved